Sheffield Institute for
Translational Neuroscience

Professor Arshad Majid

Head of Department

Professor of Cerebrovascular Neurology

Consultant Neurologist, Royal Hallamshire Hospital

Director, Comprehensive Cerebrovascular Research Unit

Stroke Theme Lead, Yorkshire and Humber LCRN

Research Interests

Key research areas: Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration, Electroceuticals, Stroke Clinical Trials, Animal and Cellular Models of Stroke and Neuroinflammation, Novel Drug Delivery (nanotechnology and exosomes), Remote Conditioning, Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

Professor Majid is the Director of the Comprehensive Cerebrovascular Research Unit (CCRU). Professor Majid's focus is translational neuroscience research with special focus on cerebrovascular disease and neuroinflammation.

  • Stroke models: The models that are used in his research include both in vitro models (cell culture) and in vivo models (focal ischaemia and global ischaemia). 

He is interested in understanding the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases with the overall aim of developing new treatment and brain repair strategies.  To this end, his lab has been successful in developing two novel treatments which are undergoing further preclinical testing before they are taken to the clinic.  He has a particular interest in ischaemic preconditioning, a fascinating phenomenon whereby animals exposed to sub-lethal or mild insults develop protection against subsequent severe insults.  His lab has developed a mouse model of ischaemic preconditioning which is used extensively in their research efforts.
IF Neuroprotection assay
Other  interests and areas of collaboration include: large animal (ovine) models of stroke, clinical outcomes research, clinical trials, stroke epidemiology and translational bioengineering.

  • Neuroinflammation: In collaboration with Professor Basil Sharrack, Professor Majid’s lab are working on neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and are developing in vitro and in vivo models of MS such as the Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE). This work involves study of novel carnosine analogues and the use of exosomes to modulate neuroinflammation.
  • Vagal nerve stimulation: In collaboration with Dr. Jessica Redgrave and Harvey Leung (PhD student), Professor Majid has been evaluating the mechanisms of action and the feasibility and safety of invasive and non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation in limb and speech recovery after stroke.
  • Exercise and stroke: In collaboration with Dr. Ali Ali, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, the safety and efficacy of post stroke and TIA exercise programmes are being evaluated.
  • Stroke vaccine: Professor Majid’s lab has developed a therapeutic vaccine which is in the final stages of preclinical testing.  This project is being led by Dr. Saurabh Jain (post-doctoral fellow).

His research has been funded by the NIH, the American Heart Association, MRC (UK), NIHR (UK) and industry.



Electroceuticals: Advances in Electrostimulation Therapies. Arshad Majid (editor) (2017). Springer.

Selected peer reviewed articles:

Majid, A., Bae, O. N., Redgrave, J., Teare, D., Ali, A., & Zemke, D. (2015). The potential of adaptive design in animal studies. Int J Mol Sci, 16(10), 24048-24058.

Baek SH, Noh AR, Kim KA, Akram M, Shin YJ, Kim ES, Yu SY, Bae ON, Majid A (2014). Modulation of mitochondrial function and autophagy mediates carnosine neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage. Stroke, 45(8),2438-2443.

Majid A. Neuroprotection in Stroke: Past, Present, and Future. (2014). ISRN Neurol. 2014; 2014:515716.

Kishore A, Vail A, Majid A, Dawson J, Lees KR, Tyrrell PJ, Smith CJ (2014) Detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke 45(2):520-6.

Bae ON and Majid A (2013) Role of histidine/histamine in carnosine-induced neuroprotection during ischemic brain damage. Brain Research, 1527:246-254.

Rayepalli S, Gupta R, Lum C, Majid A, Koochesfahani, M (2013).  Metal to surface area thresholds to reduce flow in an in vitro side wall aneurysm. J Neuroimaging (4):495-501.

Bhatt A, Safdar A, Chaudhari D, Clark D, Pollak A, Majid A, Kassab M. Medicolegal Considerations with Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Stroke: A Systematic Review (2013). Stroke Res Treat. 2013:562564.

Bae ON, Serfozo K, Baek SH, Lee KY, Dorrance A, Rumbeiha W, Fitzgerald SD, Farooq MU, Naravelta B, Bhatt A, Majid A (2013)Safety and efficacy evaluation of carnosine in ischemic stroke. Stroke (44) 1:205-2012.

Ota H, Reeves M, Majid A, Collar, A, DeMarco K (2013) Gender Differences of High-Risk Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque with Less Than 50% Stenosis in Asymptomatic Patients: An in vivo 3.0T MRI Study. AJNR  34(5):1049-55.

Smith CR, Al-Nuaimi Y, Parry-Jones A, Wainwright J, Majid A. The influence of bolus to infusion delays on plasma Tissue Plasminogen Activator levels. Int J of Stroke in press.

Bae ON, Rajanikant K, Min J, Smith J, Baek SH, Serfozo K, Hejabian S, Lee KY, Kassab M, Majid A (2012)PKC epsilon-associated Lck activation contributes to neuroprotection during ischemic preconditioning through Fyn phosphorylation. J Neurosci 32 (21):7278-86.

Lee KY, Bae ON, Serfozo K, Hejabian S, Moussa A, Reeves M, Rumbeiha W, Fitzgerald SD, Stein G, Baek SH, Goudreau J, Kassab M, Majid A (2012) Asiatic Acid Attenuates Infarct Volume, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Induction after Focal Cerebral Ischemia. Stroke 43(6):1632-8.

Froehler MT, Bhatt A, Majid A, McDonagh D (2012) Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke - Is there a role for the anesthesiologist? Neurology (79 (13 suppl1):S167-73.

Bhatt, A, Farooq MU, Majid A (2012) ABCD2 scores predict intracranial and extracranial stenosis. Neurohospitalist in press.

Farooq MU, Bhatt A, Majid A (2012) Stroke risk factor awareness amongst high school children in Pakistan. Int J Stroke (8) E15.

Mughal MM, Khan MK, Demarco JK, Majid A, Shamoun F, Abela GS (2011) Symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery plaque. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 9(10):1315-30.

Min JY, Nair M, Kassab M, Majid A Neuroprotective effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside anthocyanin in focal cerebral ischemia (2011) Neurosci Lett 500(3):157-61.

Bhatt A, Majid A, Kassab M, Safdar APrevalence of occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in cryptogenic stroke (2011) Stroke Res Treat 22;2011:172074.

Bhatt A, Safdar A, Kassab M, Majid A (2011) Serum zinc levels predict outcomes after ischemic stroke. Stroke Res Treat 14; 2010:245715.

Short JL, Majid A, Hussain SI. (2011) Endovascular treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Front Neurol. 14;1:160.

Gupta R, Bhatt A, Kassab M, Majid A (2010) Elevated levels of pre-procedural high sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with midterm restenosis after extra- and intracranial stenting. J Neuroimaging 20(1):74-7.

Demarco JK, Ota H, Underhill HR, Zhu DC, Reeves MJ, Potchen MJ, Majid A, Collar A, Talsma JA, Potru S, Oikawa M, Dong L, Zhao X, Yarnykh VL, Yuan C (2010)

MR Carotid Plaque Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography Identifies Lesions Associated with Recent Ipsilateral Thromboembolic Symptoms: An In Vivo Study at 3T. Am J Neuroradiol. 31(8):1395-402.

Ota H, Reeves MJ, Zhu DC, Majid A, Collar A, Yuan C, DeMarco JK. (2010) Sex differences in patients with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque: in vivo 3.0-T magnetic resonance study. Stroke 41(8):1630-5.

Kassab MY, Lobeck IN,Majid A, Xie Y, Farooq MU(2009) Blood pressure changes after intravenous fosphenytoin and levetiracetam in patients with acute cerebral symptoms. Epilepsy Res 87(2-3):268-71

Min JY, Farooq MU, Kassab M, Morgan G, Majid A (2009) Cardiac dysfunction after insular cortex ischemia – the brain heart connection. Stroke 40(7):2560-3.

Krishnamurthy R, Senut MC, Zemke D, Min JY, Frenkel M, Greenberg E, Majid A. (2009) Asiatic acid reduces infarct volume in mouse focal cerebral ischemia by reducing blood brain barrier permeability. J Neurosci Res. 15;87(11):2541-50.

Senut MC, Min JY, Greenberg E, Majid A (2009) Distribution and expression of carnosine in the adult and developing zebrafish. Cell Tissue Res 337(1):45-61.

Kassab MY, Gupta R, Majid A, Farooq M, Rappard A (2009) Vascular calcification seen on CT correlates with the extent of stenosis on angiography.  Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;28 (1):45-8.

Bhatt A, Majid A, Kassab M, Gupta R (2009)Chronic total symptomatic carotid artery occlusion treated successfully with stenting and angioplasty J Neuroimaging 19(1):68-7.

Bhatt A, Farooq MU, Majid A and Kassab M (2009) Chemotherapy-related posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 5(3):163-9.

Farooq MU, Bhatt A, Majid A,  Gupta R,  Khasnis A,  Kassab MY (2009) Levetiracetam for managing neurologic and psychiatric disorders Am J Health Syst Pharm  66:541-561.

Farooq MU, Majid A, Reeves MJ, Birbeck G (2009) The epidemiology of stroke in Pakistan: past, present and future Int J Stroke 4(5):381-9.

Min J, Farooq MU, Greenberg E, Aloka F, Bhatt A, Kassab M, Morgan JP, Majid A (2009) Cardiac dysfunction after insular cortex ischemia – the brain heart connection. Stroke 40(7):2560-3.

Bhatt A, Naravetla B, Majid A, Kassab M, Gupta R (2008) Treatment of basilar artery occlusion with intra-arterial thrombolysis in a 3-year-old girl. Neurocrit Care 9(3):357-60.

Farooq MU, Khasnis A, Majid A, Kassab MY (2008) Role of optical coherence tomography in vascular medicine. Vasc Med. 14(1):63-71.

Farooq MU, Amin K, Chaudhry AH, Majid A (2008) The WHO STEPwise approach to stroke surveillance. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak.18(10):665.

Bhatt A, Vora NA, Thomas AJ, Majid A, Kassab M, Hammer MD, Uchino K, Wechsler L, Jovin TG, Gupta R (2008) Lower pre-treatment cerebral blood volume increases hemorrhagic risks after intra-arterial revascularization in acute stroke. Neurosurgery 63(5):874-8.

Gupta R, Bhatt A, Kassab M, Majid A (2008) Intravascular Ultrasound to Assess Extra-Cranial Vertebral Artery Re-stenosis: Case Report. J Neuroimaging 18(3):336-9.

Reeves MJ, Mullard A, Bimenyuy C, Gargano J, Majid A, for the MASCOTS Study Investigators (2008) Effect of pre-existing statin use on in-hospital mortality and functional status at discharge in ischemic stroke patients. Stroke 39(6):1779-85.

Bhatt A, Farooq MU, Aburashed R, KassabMY, MajidA, Bhatt S, Naravetla B, Dhaliwal G. (2008) Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  Neurol Sci. 30(3):241-5.

Krishnamurthy R, Zemke D, Senut, MC, Frenkel M, Gupta R, Majid A (2007) Carnosine is neuroprotective in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 38:3023-31.

Farooq MU, Reeves, MJ, Gargano J, Hickenbottom S, Majid A (2007) In-hospital stroke in a statewide stroke registry. Cerebrovascular Disease 25:12-20.

Zemke D, Farooq MUF, Gupta R, Kassab M, Majid A (2007) The effect of anticonvulsant drugs on the fibrinolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator. Cerebrovascular Diseases 25:107-10.

Brown M, Reeves M, Glynn T, Majid A, Kothari R (2007) Implementation of an ED-based TIA clinical pathway: A pilot study in knowledge translation. Acad Emerg Med. 14:1114-9.

Zemke D, Azhar S, Majid A (2007) The mTOR pathway as a potential target for the development of therapies against neurological disease. Drugs News & Perspective 20:495-9.

Gupta R, Zaidat O, Majid A (2007) US multicenter experience with the wingspan stent system for the treatment of intracranial atheromatous disease. Periprocedural results. Stroke 38: e(80).

KassabMY, Majid A, FarooqMU, Patel K, BednarczykEM (2007) Transcranial Doppler measurements in migraine and nitroglycerin headache. J Headache Pain 8:275-279.

Farooq MU, Majid A, Gupta R, Kassab M (2007) IV levetiracetam in the management of non-convulsive status epilepticus. Neurocritical care 7:36-9.

Zemke D, Farooq MU, Majid A (2007) SAH-associated arteriopathy. Vasc Med.12:243-9.

Farooq, MU, Majid A, Pysch J, Kassab M (2007) Role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in status migrainosus. J Headache Pain 8:143-4.

Krishnamurthy R, Zemke D, Majid A (2007) Therapeutic potential of statins in neurological diseases. Curr Med Chem 141:103-12.

Kassab MY, MD, Majid A, Farooq MU, Azhary H, Hershey LA, Bednarczyk EM, GraybealDF, JohnsonMD (2007) Transcranial Doppler: An Introduction for the Primary Care Physicians. J Am Board Fam Med 20:65-71.

Deng Y, Reeves M, Jacobs B, Birbeck G, Kothari R, Hickenbottom S, Majid A (2006) IV Tissue Plasminogen Activator Use in Acute Stroke: Experience from a Statewide Registry. Neurology 66:306-12.

Zheng JS, Kidd GA, Hong H, DeMarco A, Majid A, Kaufman DI, Chen A (2005) Inhibition of brain GTP Cyclohydrolase I and Tetrahydrobiopterin attenuates cerebral infarction via reducing iNOS and peroxynitrite after transient focal ischemia. Stroke 36:2705-2711.

Farooq MU, Zemke D and Majid A (2005) Minocycline does not influence the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Ann Pharmacother 39:387-8.

Glisson C, Mohler E, Majid A (2004) An unusual presentation of central venous thrombosis. Vascular Medicine 9:225-6.

Zemke D and Majid A(2004) The neuroprotective potential of minocycline. Clin Neuropharmacol 27:293-8.

Zemke D, Smith J, Reeves M, Majid A (2004) Ischemia and ischemic tolerance in the brain: An overview. Neurotoxicology 256:895-904.

Majid A,Galetta SL, Sweeney CJ, Robinson C, Mahlingham R, Smith J, Forghani B, Gilden DH (2002).  Epstein-Barr virus myeloradiculitis and encephalomyeloradiculitis. Brain 125: 159-165.

Majid A, Kantor J, Delanty N (2001) Antiplatelet agents in the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.  Annals Pharmacother 35:1241-1247.

Majid A, He YY, Gidday JM, Kaplan SS, Gonzalez E, Park TS, Fenstermacher JD, Ling W, Choi DW, Hsu CY (2000) Differences in vulnerability to permanent focal cerebral ischemia in common mutant mouse strains.  Stroke 31: 2701-2706.

Heaney DC, Majid A, Junor B (1997) Bicarbonate haemodialysis as a treatment of metformin overdose. Nephrol Dial Transplant 12(5): 1046-1047.

Majid A, Heaney DC, Padmanabhan N, Spooner R (1996) Order of draw of blood specimens into additive containing tubes does not affect potassium and calcium measurements. J Clin Pathol 49(12): 1019-1020.

Leach JP, Sills GJ, Majid A, Carswell A, Forrest G, Buter E, Thompson GG, Brodie MJ (1996) The effects of vigabatrin and tiagabine on GABA uptake into rat cortical astrocytes in primary cultures. Seizure 5: 229-234.

Connel, LA, Majid A, Wallis DI (1989) Involvement of alpha-1-adrenoreceptors in the depolarising but not the hyperpolarising responses of motor neurones to noradrenaline. Neuropharmacology 28 (12): 1399-1404.


Professor Arshad Majid’s professional mission is to develop new therapies for patients afflicted with neurological diseases, especially cerebrovascular diseases.

Professor Majid’s training and background is unique in that as well as being a leading translational neuroscientist, he is also an accomplished Vascular and Interventional Neurologist. He graduated in Medicine from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. After obtaining Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (MRCP) he moved to the USA where he did further training in Neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and Fellowship training in Stroke Research at Washington University in St. Louis.  He did additional Fellowship training in Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Professor Majid has published extensively in high impact international peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international meetings.  After finishing his training, Professor Majid served as the founding Director of the Division of Cerebrovascular Diseases at Michigan State University and was the founding Medical Director of the William and Claire Dart Stroke Center at Sparrow Health System. 

Professor Majid is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow and also serves as their Regional Advisor.

He joined the University of Sheffield and Royal Hallamshire Hospital in August 2013 as Professor of Cerebrovascular Neurology and Consultant Neurologist.

Professor Majid also serves as a Governor of Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust.

Teaching Interests

Professor Majid is the Phase 3a Neurology Lead for Sheffield Medical school.

Contact Details

Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience
University of Sheffield
385a Glossop Road
S10 2HQ

T: +44 (0)114 2222249
F: +44 (0)114 2222290

NHS Secretary:
Ms Judy O´Dea
T: +44 (0)114 226 8763

Academic Administrator:
Rebecca Brown
T: +44 (0)114 2222261

Opportunities in the Comprehensive Cerebrovascular Research Unit

Doctoral Students:Professor Majid welcomes enquiries from students interested in pursuing a doctorate in translational and clinical research. Several projects, preclinical (translational) and clinical are available. These include development of vaccines for neurological diseases, remote conditioning, development of exosome technologies for therapeutics and development of novel neurotherapeutics.

Post-Doctoral Scientists (short and long-term): Several preclinical and clinical projects are available.